By Y. Copper. Southern Arkansas University. 2018.
It is envisaged that efforts will continue to provide solutions discount methotrexate 2.5mg with visa, from a TR perspective buy generic methotrexate 2.5 mg line, which can accommodate for the temporal nature of healthcare based information. Recent studies (Shahar, 1999; Augusto, 2003a) have identified several key areas of TR to be explored to provide more accurate and useful automated assistance in healthcare. Here we have covered general aspects while more specific and technical coverage is given in Augusto & Nugent (2004). Some of the tools and the information required for the medical practice is shared between the traditional scenario and the Internet-based approach to diagnosis as discussed above. However, this article attempts to illustrate that while TR remains an important concept to be considered in Internet-based healthcare, the infra- structure where it is applied and the interaction with this technology is substantially different and will pose further unresolved challenges. Conclusion It is evident that the way healthcare will be delivered in the future will involve the utilization of ICT solutions, especially the Internet, to ensure a cost-effective means of high quality of service. Coupled with this will be embedded automated medical decision support systems offering the ability to analyze and interpret the plethora of clinical information that can be acquired through such infrastructures and their data repositories. This will inevitability result in both patients and healthcare professionals being pre- sented more often with ICT healthcare solutions resulting in a change in the way they interact. The role of TR has been established and proven from a computer science perspective and has attained applied success in many domains, including the assistance in medical diagnosis and treatment. The last decade has witnessed a fruitful interaction between the areas of TR and medicine and significant advances were made in time-related diagnosis and therapy support. However, these advances were made under a different knowledge Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Management and Analysis of Time-Related Data in Internet-Based Healthcare 49 management paradigm and although we think they may provide a good starting point they cannot be directly applied to Internet-based healthcare systems. Given that there is a large “time” element associated with clinical information and the opportunity to embed TR into the next generation of Internet-based healthcare, we identify this as a potential prolific area for future developments and an opportunity to identify “how” and “where” it can be applied. Specifically, it is our view that in the short term TR will be a valuable asset in the provision of automated support during Internet- based patient to healthcare professional consultations. Technical report, School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, UK.
Desﬂurane Enﬂurane Desﬂurane (Suprane) shares most of the pharmacologi- Enﬂurane (Ethrane) depresses myocardial contractility cal properties of isoﬂurane methotrexate 2.5mg without a prescription. In contrast to and blood solubility compared with other halogenated halothane order methotrexate 2.5 mg fast delivery, it does not block sympathetic reﬂexes, and hydrocarbons, and its anesthetic partial pressure is thus therefore, its administration results in tachycardia. Recovery is similarly prompt However, the increased heart rate is not sufﬁcient to op- when the patient is switched to room air or oxygen. In addition, enﬂurane from its rapid onset and prompt elimination from the sensitizes the myocardium to catecholamine-induced body by exhalation. A disadvantage is that desﬂurane ir- arrhythmias, although to a lesser extent than with ritates the respiratory tract; thus, it is not preferred for halothane. Although Desﬂurane, like other halogenated hydrocarbon muscle relaxation is inadequate for many surgical proce- anesthetics, causes a decrease in blood pressure. The re- dures, the anesthetic enhances the action of neuromuscu- duced pressure occurs primarily as a consequence of lar blocking agents, thereby lowering the dose of the par- decreased vascular resistance, and since cardiac output alytic agent needed and minimizing side effects. Although uncon- tion, a decrease in tidal volume, and a decrease in sciousness occurs at these inspired levels, patients ex- minute volume as inspired concentrations only slightly hibit signs of CNS excitation, such as physical struggling exceed 1 MAC. If the airway is unprotected, vomiting desﬂurane to be administered near or above MAC lev- may lead to aspiration pneumonitis, since the protective els, patients are likely to have marked reductions in reﬂexes of the airway are depressed. On the other hand, lower inspired concentrations (25–40%) of N2O produce CNS depression without exci- Sevoﬂurane tatory phenomena and are more safely used clinically. CNS properties of low inspired tension of N2O include Sevoﬂurane (Ultane) is the most recently introduced in- periods of waxing and waning consciousness, amnesia, halation anesthetic. With this con- makes it useful for outpatient and ambulatory proce- centration, responses to painful surgical manipulations dures. It has the advantage of not being pungent, a char- are blocked as effectively as they would be with a thera- acteristic that permits a smooth inhalation induction, peutic dose of morphine. Since the tissue solubility of N2O is low, the it does not directly produce tachycardia, it is a useful al- CNS effects are rapid in onset, and recovery is prompt ternative to consider in patients with myocardial isch- when the patient is returned to room air or oxygen. However, a concern for reﬂex-induced tachycar- The most common use of N2O is in combination with dia remains.
Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc purchase methotrexate 2.5 mg with amex. Patient attributes for whose benefit healthcare establishments are established cheap methotrexate 2.5 mg with visa, where knowledge and information can assist patients to appreciate their condi- tion and help them to maintain their treatments, and b. Staff members of a healthcare organization that can only properly satisfy an employment role if they have relevant knowledge. Organizational, where healthcare is benefited from knowledge and knowledge processes by enabling them to understand their own organizational capacity to maintain and improve quality patient services and to respond to the need to coherently create new knowledge by becoming a learning organization. Part of the knowledge process in the UK National Health Service (NHS) centers on a need to involve patients more in their own healthcare; and there are sound financial and medical arguments for this that satisfy the needs of both consultant practitioners and management. In traditional positivist culture that still operates in so many healthcare establishments, the patients are viewed as a commodity input to the healthcare system represented as objectivated2 “cases” rather than subjectivated individuals with their own learning needs. As a consequence, it is not unknown for patients to become invisible as their “cases” are discussed with a third party in their presence. Baldwin, Clarke, Eldabi, & Jones (2002) note that there is a call for healthcare professionals to engage more fully with their patients, and to see them more as some kind of partner in their healthcare rather than as a paternal authority. It is knowledge that provides the capacity for patients to understand their own conditions, recognize what constitutes relevant information, and contribute to the decision making process both in regard to primary and secondary care. There is also a need in healthcare organizations to ensure that staff are provided not only with the information and knowledge that enables them to effectively perform their tasks, but that they are also included within the organizational processes that enables them to become motivated and participate in organizational improvement. This human resource management approach is normal to techniques of Organization Development (Yolles, 1999). In healthcare organizations the nature of the knowledge processes that are undertaken can be expressed in terms of organizational quality. Stahr (2001), in a study on quality in UK healthcare establishments, uses the definition by Joss, Kogan, & Henkel (1994) to identify three levels of quality: technical, generic and systemic. While the word technical is often used to mean “control and predication”, for Joss et al. The word generic is expressed in terms of normative organizational healthcare standards.
What can make it worse: touching the area methotrexate 2.5mg line, chewing order methotrexate 2.5mg line, lowering the head between the legs. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: headaches, recent facial injury, anxiety, depression, fever, earache, eye pain, visual change, nasal discharge, toothache. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: diabetes, headaches, migraine headaches, nervous system disease, recurrent ear infection, rheuma- toid arthritis, glaucoma, sinus disease, dental infections. Your doctor will do a physical examination including the fol- lowing: temperature, checking teeth for hygiene and pain, thorough head, eye, and ear exam. CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Acute sinusitis Sudden inflammation of Sudden facial pain, the sinuses headache, nasal conges- tion, runny nose, pain worsens when lowering the head between the legs Acute angle Sudden buildup of Sudden facial pain, eye is closure pressure in the eyeball painful and red, headache, glaucoma nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, halo around lights, may be precipitated by darkness or stress Dental abscess Collection of pus in the Sudden tooth pain gums, caused by an infection Herpes zoster Inflammation of the Sudden facial pain, begins nerves in the spine and before, during, or after skull, causing redness on outbreak the skin; also known as shingles Tic douloureux Nerve problem causing Jabs of pain, pain often facial pain and spasms occurs near the eye, may in facial muscles be brought on by cold, heat, or pressure over the “trigger” area Temporoman- Pain in the lower jaw Pain on chewing, some- dibular joint times history of rheumatoid pain — “TMJ” arthritis Chronic or Infection of the middle Earache, decreased hearing acute otitis ear media Migraine Severe headache Throbbing pain that can headache last several days, often experience typical “funny” feelings before pain kicks in, headache often centers in the front of the head, often preceded by nausea and vomiting, family histo- ry of migraine, may be caused by alcohol or stress (see chapter on Headache) Fever In adults, fever often accompanies illness, and may be the first sign you are ill. In children, a spike in fever can occur in response to vaccination, or after a seemingly mild infection, such as an earache, cold, or flu. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: shaking chills, changes in weight, night sweats, headache, stiff neck, ear pain or ear pulling, sore throat, chest pain, cough, sputum production, trouble breath- ing, abdominal pain, urinary frequency, pain or difficulty urinating, crying on urination (child), dark urine, bone or joint pain, skin rash or pustules. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: valvular heart disease, diabetes, tuberculosis, mononucleosis, AIDS, positive tuberculin test. Your doctor will want to know if you recently traveled to anoth- er country, received a tick bite within the past two weeks, or had contact with someone with tuberculosis, pneumonia, strep, a cold, or the flu. If the patient is a child, your doctor will want to know if he was wearing excessively warm clothing when his temperature was taken, and if he has been vaccinated within the past three days. FEVER 89 Your doctor will do a physical examination including the fol- lowing: temperature, pulse, weight, blood pressure, complete physi- cal examination, check head for sinus tenderness, thorough ear exam, looking in the throat, checking the neck for stiffness, listening to the chest and heart with a stethoscope, pushing on the abdomen, checking extremities for swelling or tenderness or redness, thorough skin exam, checking lymph nodes to see if they are enlarged. IN ADULTS CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Upper Cold Sore throat, runny nose, respiratory cough, mild fever illness Mononucleosis Flu-like illness caused by Sore throat, fatigue the Epstein-Barr virus “Flu” syndrome Conditions that produce Muscle aches and pains, flu symptoms but that are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, not necessarily the flu loss of appetite, malaise, mild fever Urinary tract Infection of the bladder Frequent urination, pain or infection or urethra difficulty urinating, pain in the sides, sometimes blood in urine Drug fever Fever resulting from a Sometimes skin rash reaction to a drug SERIOUS, LESS COMMON ILLNESSES THAT CAN PRODUCE FEVER IN ADULTS CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs Cough, coughing up green or yellow material, chest pain Meningitis Infection or inflammation Headache, stiff neck of the covering of the brain 90 FEVER WHAT CAN CAUSE FEVER, AND WHAT IS TYPICAL FOR EACH CAUSE? What can make it worse: certain activities, such as walking, stand- ing, or wearing shoes. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: joint pain, foot numbness, any previous X-rays or evaluations of the foot and ankle. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: gout, alcoholism, pernicious ane- mia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis.
Errors hereon may be reproduced or used in any form brought to the attention of the publisher and Permissions verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will or by any means—graphic trusted 2.5mg methotrexate, electronic methotrexate 2.5mg low price, or me- Thomson Gale chanical, including photocopying, recording, be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA The Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine / Jacqueline L. Readers should be aware that the universe product to be comprehensive, but not necessarily defini- of complementary medical knowledge is constantly tive. It is intended to supplement, not replace, consulta- growing and changing, and that differences of medical tion with a physician or other healthcare practitioner. They are also advised to While Thomson Gale has made substantial efforts to pro- seek professional diagnosis and treatment for any med- vide information that is accurate, comprehensive, and ical condition, and to discuss information obtained from up-to-date, Thomson Gale makes no representations or this book with their healthcare provider. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 XV ABOUT THE ENCYCLOPEDIA The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine Diseases/conditions (GEAM) is a one-stop source for alternative medical in- • Definition formation that covers complementary therapies, herbs and remedies, and common medical diseases and condi- • Description tions. It avoids medical jargon, making it easier for the • Causes & symptoms layperson to use. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative • Diagnosis Medicine presents authoritative, balanced information • Treatment and is more comprehensive than single-volume family • Allopathic treatment medical guides. Many Inclusion criteria prominent figures are highlighted as sidebar biographies that accompany the therapy entries. Articles follow a A preliminary list of therapies, herbs, remedies, dis- standardized format that provides information at a eases, and conditions was compiled from a wide variety glance. Rubrics include: of sources, including professional medical guides and textbooks, as well as consumer guides and encyclope- dias. The advisory board, made up of three medical and Therapies alternative healthcare experts, evaluated the topics and made suggestions for inclusion. Final selection of topics • Origins to include was made by the medical advisors in conjunc- • Benefits tion with Thomson Gale editors. GEAM medical advisors re- viewed over 95% of the completed essays to insure that Herbs/remedies they are appropriate, up-to-date, and medically accurate. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 XVII • Bold faced terms function as print hyperlinks that • An appendix of alternative medical organizations point the reader to related entries in the encyclo- is arranged by type of therapy and includes valu- pedia. Syn- enhanced with over 450 images, including photos, ta- onyms are also cross-referenced. Each volume con- •AResources section directs users to sources of tains a color insert of 64 important herbs, remedies, and further complementary medical information.