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Medical schools require evaluation as part of their quality assurance procedures purchase lopid 300mg with visa, but the value of Purpose of evaluation evaluation is much greater than the provision of simple audit information cheap 300mg lopid with amex. It provides evidence of how well students’ learning x To ensure teaching is meeting students’ learning needs objectives are being achieved and whether teaching standards x To identify areas where teaching can be improved x To inform the allocation of faculty resources are being maintained. Importantly, it also enables the x To provide feedback and encouragement for teachers curriculum to evolve. A medical curriculum should constantly x To support applications for promotion by teachers develop in response to the needs of students, institutions, and x To identify and articulate what is valued by medical schools society. Evaluation can check that the curriculum is evolving in x To facilitate development of the curriculum the desired way. It should be viewed positively as contributing to the academic development of an institution and its members. Evaluation versus research Evaluation and educational research are similar activities but Teaching or learning activity with important differences. Research is usually aimed at producing generalisable results that can be published in peer reviewed literature, and it requires ethical and other safeguards. Evaluation is generally carried out for local use and does not Collection and usually require ethics committee approval. Evaluation has to be Planning and assessment preparation of evaluation data carefully considered by curriculum committees, however, to ensure that it is being carried out ethically. Finally, evaluation is a continuous process, whereas research may not become continuous if the answer to the question is found. From Wilkes et al (see “Further reading” box) Evaluation may cover the process and/or outcome of any aspect of education, including the delivery and content of teaching. Questions about delivery may relate to Kirkpatrick’s four levels on which to focus evaluation* organisation—for example, administrative arrangements, physical environment, and teaching methods.
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A principle of osteotomy is to support weight-bearing with intact or live bone instead Department of Orthopaedic Surgery generic lopid 300mg visa, Graduate School of Medical Sciences cheap lopid 300mg mastercard, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan 79 80 S. The dashed line shows the osteonecrosis area of the femoral head from the anterior view of the necrotic bone and to restore the subluxated femoral head (Fig. In other words, osteotomy is on-site vascularized bone grafting with articular cartilage and with good congruency. Options of osteotomy for ONFH are transtrochanteric anterior or posterior rotational osteotomy (ARO or PRO) developed by Sugioka et al. The treatment option is chosen depending on the lesion of osteonecrosis or on where and how wide is the osteonecrosis area in the femoral head. Especially for young patients, oste- otomy is an important treatment option to be considered, and they are expected to survive for a long time after their hip osteotomy. Sugioka developed transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy Long-Term Experience of Osteotomy for Femoral Head Osteonecrosis 81 Fig. Sequential photographs of anterior rotation of the femoral head show a model of ante- rior rotational osteotomy (ARO) with 20° varus position and indicate how ARO results in weight-bearing with the living posterior surface of the femoral head (a–f). According to anterior rotation, the osteotomy line is 10° inclination away from the perpendicular to the neck (a) and 10° ret- roversion. The result is 20° varus position after anterior rotation of the femoral head (f) of the femoral head, so-called “rotational osteotomy” or “Sugioka’s osteotomy”. Anterior rotation of the femoral head with vascularity results in weight-bearing with the live posterior surface of the femoral head (Fig. Experience of Osteotomy in Kyushu University Between 1972 and 1979 The cases that survived more than 25 years after the operation were investigated to reconﬁrm the principles or the indication based upon our previous experience with osteotomy treatment for ONFH [1,2,4]. Patients and Methods Between 1972 and 1979, 128 patients with idiopathic ONFH underwent osteotomy in our department.