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Hermaphroditism and ir- women with ovarian tumors varies depending on the type of regularities of the sex chromosomes buy toradol 10mg free shipping, for example toradol 10mg low price, are develop- tumor,whether or not it is malignant,and if it is,the stage of mental conditions that cause a person to develop both male and the cancer. Two frequent problems involving the uterine tubes are Other developmental abnormalities of the female repro- salpingitis and ectopic pregnancies. Salpingitis (sal-pin-gi-tis) is ductive system may occur during the formation of the uterus and an inflammation of one or both uterine tubes. Papanicolaou, American anatomist and physician, Ectopic pregnancy results from implantation of the blasto- 1883–1962 cyst in a location other than the body or fundus of the uterus. Female Reproductive © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development System Companies, 2001 Chapter 21 Female Reproductive System 747 implanted blastocyst causes what is commonly called a tubal Nonmalignant Malignant pregnancy. One danger of a tubal pregnancy is the enlargement, rupture, and subsequent hemorrhage of the uterine tube where implantation has occurred. Ectopic tubal Tubal Infertility, or the inability to conceive, is a clinical prob- pregnancy carcinoma lem that may involve the male or female reproductive system. Submucous Endometrial On the basis of number of people who seek help for this problem, leiomyoma (fibroid) carcinoma it is estimated that 10% to 15% of couples have impaired fertil- Endometrial polyp ity. Generally, when a male is infertile, it is because of inade- quate sperm counts. Female infertility is frequently caused by an Endometrial hyperplasia obstruction of the uterine tubes or abnormal ovulation. Atrophic endometrium Cervical Cervicitis carcinoma Problems Involving the Uterus Cervical polyp Abnormal menstruations are among the most common disorders of the female reproductive system. Abnormal menstruations Atrophic vaginitis may be directly related to problems of the reproductive organs Vaginal carcinoma and pituitary gland or associated with emotional and psycholog- ical stress. Amenorrhea (a-men'o˘-re-a˘) is the absence of menstruation and may be categorized as normal, primary, or secondary.
CHAPTER 13 The Electrical Activity of the Heart 223 40 Neurotransmitters and Other Ligands Can Influence Membrane Ion Conductance a b c 20 The normal pacemaker cells are under the influence of parasympathetic nerves (vagus) and sympathetic nerves 0 (cardioaccelerator) purchase 10mg toradol visa. The vagus nerves release acetylcholine (ACh) and the cardioaccelerator nerves release norepi- nephrine at their terminals in the heart 10 mg toradol. ACh slows the 20 heart rate by reducing the rate of spontaneous depolariza- tion of pacemaker cells (see Fig. Slowed heart rate is called bradycardia, or when the heart rate is below 60 beats/min. Normal pacemaker potential reached more rapidly and the heart rate increases. The creased heart rate is called tachycardia, or when the heart dashed line indicates threshold potential. Norepinephrine increases the pacemaker potential in the presence of norepinephrine (a) results from increased Na permeability. The hyperpolarization and slope of the pacemaker potential by opening channels car- 2 slower rising pacemaker potential in the presence of ACh results rying Na and Ca and closing K channels. Both effects from decreased Na permeability and increased K permeability, result in faster movement of the pacemaker potential to- 2 due to the opening of ACh-activated K channels. Norepi- nephrine and ACh exert these effects via Gs and Gi protein- mediated events. Third, calcium moves in through the voltage- 2 to the ones outlined above. All three of these changes move the membrane potential in a positive direc- 2 tion toward the Na and Ca equilibrium potentials. THE INITIATION AND PROPAGATION This action potential rises more slowly than the ventricular OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY action potential because the fast voltage-gated Na chan- nels play an insignificant role. Instead, the opening of slow Cardiac electrical activity is normally initiated and spread 2 in an orderly fashion.
Pulmonary hypertension also in- Although the body undergoes many beneficial changes creases the workload of the right heart toradol 10mg on line, causing right heart that allow acclimatization to high altitude buy 10mg toradol, there are some hypertrophy, which, if severe enough, may lead to death. REVIEW QUESTIONS DIRECTIONS: Each of the numbered (C) Rapid shallow breathing (B) Central effects are mediated by items or incomplete statements in this (D) Systemic vasoconstriction direct effects on cells of the section is followed by answers or by (E) Skeletal muscle relaxation DRG/VRG complex completions of the statement. Which of the following is true about (C) Sensitivity of the control system is ONE lettered answer or completion that is cerebrospinal fluid? Generation of the basic cyclic pattern (B) Its PCO2 equals that of systemic than control in response to oxygen of breathing in the CNS requires arterial blood (E) Transection of cranial nerves IX participation of (C) It is freely accessible to blood and X at the skull would have no (A) The pontine respiratory group hydrogen ions effect (B) Vagal afferent input to the pons (D) Its composition is essentially that 10. Which of the following relationships (C) Vagal afferent input to the of a plasma ultrafiltrate can be represented by a straight line medulla (E) Its pH is a function of PaCO2 sloping downward from left to right? Slow-wave sleep is characterized by (A) Minute ventilation as a function of (E) An intact spinal cord (A) A fall in PaCO2 arterial pH (B) A tendency for breathing to vary (B) Minute ventilation as a function of 2. Quiet expiration is associated with in a periodic fashion arterial oxygen percent saturation (A) A brief early burst by inspiratory (C) Facilitation of the cough reflex (C) Carotid chemoreceptor firing neurons (D) Heightened ventilatory (B) Active abduction of the vocal frequency as a function of PaCO2 responsiveness to hypoxia cords (D) Minute ventilation as a function (E) Greater skeletal muscle relaxation (C) An early burst of activity by of PaO2 while PaCO2 is held constant than REM sleep expiratory muscles (E) Arterial pH as a function of 7. Which of the following is not true (D) Reciprocal inhibition of arterial [H ] during sleep? The ventilatory response to hypoxia (D) Airway occlusion evokes arousal Application in Medicine. O2-sensing mecha- carotid chemoreceptors (A) Would not apply to the regulation nisms in excitable cells: Role of plasma (C) Is exaggerated by hypoxia of the membrane K channels. Annu Rev of PaCO2 medullary chemoreceptors (B) Anticipate future events Physiol 1997;59:23–41. Nunn’s Applied Respiratory relationship to arterial oxygen content sensitive Physiology. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- (E) Is a sensitive mechanism for (D) Are ineffective if the properties of Heinemann, 2000.
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